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高考英语阅读理解干扰项的设置特点

高考英语中通过分析干扰项的设置特点可以为我们提供思考的方向。常用的干扰手段有哪些。干扰项的如下特点:

高考英语阅读理解干扰项的设置特点

(一) 偷梁换柱

干扰项用了与原文相似的句型结构和大部分相似的词汇,却在不易引人注意的地方换了几个词汇,造成句意的改变。
【考例1】(2011湖南卷A篇) When first entered, Vanak Restaurant does not look like much of a restaurant, but once the pleasant smells of kabob(烤肉串)hit the senses, you are incapable of calling it anything less. Owned by a local couple, this Persian restaurant has an inviting, homelike atmosphere that Many restaurants lack. The space is small with only a few dining tables and nearly no decoration, but environment is truly charming.
56. When first entering the restaurant, one can find that .
A. is splendidly decorated
B. has pleasant smells of kabobs
C. is crowded with dining tables
D. looks like a common restaurant

【考例2】(2011湖南卷A篇) A common sight is that of old Persian men sitting in the corner talking loudly about world topics, watching news events on TV, drinking a blacktea known as Persian chai, and reading local Persian newspapers all the while trying to finish off their plates piled with food..
57. What activity’s also mentioned apart from dining in the restaurant?
A. Watching news events on TV.
B. Drinking a kind of black coffee.
C. Reading local English newspapers.
D. Discussing world topics in low voices.

(二) 在推理判断中利用词的表面意义来设置干扰

推理判断要求在理解原文表面信息的基础上,做出一定的判断和推论,从而得到文章的隐含意义,要注意不能以文字的表面含义代替推理。
【考例1】(2010湖南卷B) But she hasn't always practiced what she teaches. In her book, she describes that awful day, almost 40 years ago, when she received two pieces of life-changing news. First, she had lostthe baby she was carrying, and second, tests showed that she had diabetes. In a childlike act, she left the hospital and treated herself to a box of doughnuts(甜甜圈). Years would pass before she realized she had to grow up—again—and take control of her diabetes, not let it control her. Only then did she kick her three-pack-a-day cigarette habit, overcome her addiction to alcohol, and begin to follow a balanced diet.
When Mary received the life-changing news, she_________.
A. lost control of herself
B. began a balanced diet
C. tried to get a treatment
D. behaved in an adult way

【考例2】…McKay’s war records were destroyed during a World War II air bombing on London — an explanation for why he was all but forgotten.
But now, thanks to the efforts of Broad and his students, a marker in McKay’s memory was placed on the university grounds in November 2007. “I found my eyes filling with tears as I read the word ‘deceased’(阵亡) next tohis name,” said Corey Everrett , a student who found a picture of Mckay in his uniform. “This was such a simple example of the fact that he had been a student just like us, but instead of finishing his time at Western, he chose to fight and die for his country.” (2009湖南卷)
We canlearn from the last paragraph that McKay ________ .
A. preferred fight to his study
B. went to war before graduation
C. left a picture for Corey Everett
D. set an example for his fellow students

【考例3】 (2009湖北) A few years ago, Paul Gernerbegan to gather a group of architects in Las vegas to ask them what it would take to design a public school that used 50 percent less energy, cost much less to build and obviously improved student learning . ”I think half of them fell off their chairs,” Gerner says.
How did the architects react to Garner’s design requirements ?
A. They lost balance in excitement.
B. they showed strong disbelief.
C. they expressed little interest.
D.they burst into cheers.

【考例4】I suddenly heard an elephant crying as though frightened. Looking down, I immediately recognized that something was wrong, and ran down to the edge of the near bank.There I saw Ma Shwe with her three-month-old calf struggling in the fast-risingwater, and it was a life-and-death struggle.
Her calf was floating and screaming withfear. ……Then with a huge effort, she picked it up in her trunk and tried until she was able to place the calf on a narrow shelf of rock.
Just at this moment, she fell back into theriver. If she were carried down, it would be certain death. I knew, as well asshe did, that there was one spot where she could get up the bank, but it was onthe other side from where she had put her calf.
While I was wondering what I could do next,I heard the sound of a mother’s love. Ma Shwe had crossed the river and got upthe bank and was making her way back as fast as she could, roaring(吼叫) all the time, but to her calf itwas music. (2009宁夏)
How did the calf feel about the mother elephant's roaring?
A. It was a great comfort.
B. It was a sign of danger.
C. It was a call for help.
D. It was a musical note.

(三)以偏概全

把文章中的事实和细节当主旨,把片面的、次要的观点当成主要观点。在猜测文章或段落大意、标题以及释义题中,干扰项总是以偏概全,具体表现为: (1) 把文章中的次要观点、细节混进体现文章主要观点、中心思想的选项(2) 把超过文章讨论的东西亦作为归纳或结论混进选项。(3)把段落的主旨当作文章的主旨。
【考例1】There is asimple economic principle used to determine prices. It is called the law ofsupply and demand. Supply means the amount of, or access to, certain goods.Demand represents the number of people who want those goods. If there are moregoods than wanted, the price of them falls. On the other hand, if the demandfor those goods is much greater than the supply, then price rises. Of coursemanufacturers prefer to sell more goods at increased prices.
The main purpose of this Paragraph is to tell us that _______.
A. EconomicPrinciples
B. Law ofSupply and Demand
C. More Goods,Lower Prices
D. Fewer Goods,Higher Prices

【考例2】There is no necessary connection between the symbol and that which it stands for. Just as social positions can be symbolized by feathers worn on the head, by gold on the watch chain, or by a thousand other things according to the culture we live in,so the fact of being hungry can be symbolized by a thousand different noises according to the culture we live in. (2005北京D)
What can we conclude from Paragraph 2?
A. Different noise may mean different things.
B. Our culture determines what a symbol stands for.
C. The language we use symbolizes our social positions.
D. Our social positions determine the way we are dressed.

【考例3】It seems that the Englishmen just cannot live without sports of some kind. A famous French humorist once said that this is because the English insist on behaving like children all their lives. Wherever you go in this country, you will see both children and grown-ups knocking a ball about with a stick or something, as if in Britain men shall always remain boys and women girls! Still, it can never be bad to get exercise, can it?
The main purpose of Paragraph 1 is to tell us that the English _______.
A. are all sports lovers
B. behave like children
C. like to kick a ball around
D. remain young by getting exercise

(四) 张冠李戴

把一个事物的特征说成是另一个事物的特征,因果倒置(把因说成果,把果说成因);把他人的观点说成是作者的观点。命题者把文章作者的观点与他人的观点混淆起来,题干问的是作者的观点,选项中出现的却是他人的观点;或者题干问的是他人的观点,却把作者的观点放到选项中去。
【考例1】 Many years ago,when I was fresh out of school and working in Denver,I was driving to my parents’home in Missouri for Christmas. I stopped at a gas station(加油站)about 50 miles from Oklahoma City,where I was planning to stop and visit a friend. While I was standing in line at the cash register(收款台), I said hello to an older couple who were also paying for gas. (2006全国A)
The author planned to stop at Oklahoma City________.
A. to visit a friend
B. to see his parents
C. to pay at the cash register
D. to have more gas for his car

【考例2】As the paper burns, it needs oxygen and uses up the oxygen (air) in the bottle. The egg acts as a seal in the neck of the bottle, so no more air can get inside. This reduces the air pressure inside the bottle. The air pressure must equalize, so more air from outside must enter the bottle. The outside air pressure against the egg and then the egg is pushed into the bottle! The proves that air is all around and that it is pressing down on it.
In the experiment, the burning inside the bottle can_________.
A. equalize the air pressure inside and outside
B. make a seal in the neck of the bottle
C. finish up the oxygen inside the bottle
D. produce more oxygen inside the bottle

【考例3】One famous surgeon always made it a rule to spend at least 15 minutes on general reading before he went to sleep each night. Whether he went to bed at 10 p.m. or 2.30 a.m. made no difference. Even if you cannot keep to this kind of discipline, it is a good idea to make sure you always have a general interest book in your pocket. Don’t forget it should be a book which entertains you and the English must not be too difficult for you.
The famous surgeon mentioned in the first Paragraph exemplifies the people who ____.
A. make it a rule to read at 10 p.m. or 2:30 a.m. every day
B. are in the habit of doing regular reading every day no matter how busy they are
C. always have an interesting book in their pockets
D. habitually go to bed late

【考例4】A year ago August, Dave Fuss lost his job driving a truck for a small company in west Michigan. His wife, Gerrie, was still working in the local school cafeteria, but work for Dave was scarce, and the price of everything was rising. The Fusses were at risk of joining the millions of Americans who have lost their homes in recent years. Then Dave and Gerrie received a timely gift—$7,000,a legacy (遗产)from their neighbors Ish and Arlene Hatch, who died in an accident .“It really made a difference when we were going under financially.” says Dave. (2009山东A)
According go the text, the Fusses __________.
A. were employed by a truck company
B. were in financial difficulty
C. worked in a school cafeteria
D. lost their home

【考例5】This is not a surprise to public health advocates. They’ve studied the effect of state tax increases for years, finding that smokers, especially teens, are price sensitive. Nor is it a shock to the industry, which fiercely fights every tax increase.
The only wonder is that so many states insist on closing their ears to the message. Tobacco taxes improve public health, they raise money and most particularly, they deter people from taking up the habit as teens, which is when nearly all smokers are addicted. Yet the rate of taxation varies widely.
What does the author think is a surprise?(2009山东C)
A. Teen smokers are price sensitive.
B. Some states still keep the tobacco tax low.
C. Tobacco taxes improve public health.
D. Tobacco industry fiercely fights the tax rise

(五)正反倒置

1.把事实发生的顺序颠倒

【考例1】Unlike her 1995 autobiography, After All, her second book is less about life as an award-winning actress and more about living with diabetes (糖尿病). All the money from the book is intended for the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation (JDRF), an organization she serves as international chairman. “I felt there was a need for a book like this,” she says. “I didn’t want to lecture, but I wanted other diabetics to know that things get better when we're self-controlled and do our part in managing the disease.” (2010湖南卷B)
We can know that before 1995 Mary__________.
A. had two books published
B. received many career awards
C. knew how to use a computer
D. supported the JDRF by writing

2.把事物的正面影响或负面影响反过来说。

【考例2】We have met the enemy and he is ours .We bought him at a pet shop. When monkey-pox, disease usually found in the African rain forest, suddenly turns up in children in the American Midwest it’s hard not to wonder of the disease that comes from foreign animals is homing in on human beings. “Most of the infections(感染)we think of as human infections started in other animals “ says Stephen Morse director of the Center for Public Health Preparedness at Columbia University. (2009宁夏D)
From Paragraph I we learn that the pet sold at the shop may_________.
A. come from Columbia
B. prevent us from being infected
C. enjoy being with children
D. suffer from monkey-pox

【考例3】As the paper burns, it needs oxygen and uses up the oxygen (air) in the bottle. The egg acts as a seal in the neck of the bottle, so no more air can get inside. This reduces the air pressure inside the bottle. The air pressure must equalize, so more air from outside must enter the bottle. The outside air pressure against the egg and then the egg is pushed into the bottle! The proves that air is all around and that it is pressing down on it.
In the experiment, the burning inside the bottle can_________.
A. equalize the air pressure inside and outside
B.make a seal in the neck of the bottle
C. finish up the oxygen inside the bottle
D.produce more oxygen inside the bottle

4.因果倒置(把因说成果,把果说成因)

【考例4】If you look for a book as a present for a child. You will be spoiled for choice even in a year there is no new Harry Potter. J.K Rowling’s wizard is not alone: the past decade has been a harvest for good children’s books, which has set off a large quantity of films and an increased sales of classics such as The lard of the Rings. (2007山东B)
Which of the following is true of Paragraph 1?
A. Many children’s books have been adapted from films.
B. Many high-quality children’s books have been published.
C. The sales of classics have led to the popularity of films.
D. The sales of presents for children have increased.

【考例5】 (2009安徽E) A rainforest is an area covered by tall trees with the total high rainfall spreading quite equally through the year and the temperature rarely dropping below l6℃. Rainforests have a great effect on the world environment because they can take in heat from the sun and adjust the climate. Without the forest cover,these areas would reflect more heat into the atmosphere,warming the rest of the world. Losing the rainforests may also influence wind and rainfall patterns,potentially causing certain natural disasters all over the world.
Rainforests can help to adjust the climate because they .
A. reflect more heat into the atmosphere
B. bring about high rainfall throughout the world
C. rarely cause the temperature to drop lower than l6℃
D. reduce the effect of heat from the sun on the earth

4.把作者观点的反面说成是作者的观点

【考例6】In a time of low academic achievement by children in the United States, many Americans are turning to Japan, a country of high academic achievement and economic success, for possible answers.
However, the answers provided by Japanese preschools are not the ones Americans expected to find. In most Japanese preschools, surprisingly little emphasis is put on academic instruction….
We learn from the first paragraph that many Americans believe__________.
A. Japanese parents are more involved in preschool education than American parents
B. Japan's economic success is a result of its scientific achievements
C. Japanese preschool education emphasizes academic instruction
D. Japan's higher education is superior to theirs

(六)过度引申。

备选项虽然是从原文中推理引申出来的,但是却超出了文章允许的范围。考生切勿过度发挥,一切以原文为本。
【考例1】Hal Rogers, Representative from Kentucky, like those who are against high tobacco taxes, argues that the burden of the tax falls on low-income Americans “who choose to smoke.”
That’s true, But there is more reason in keeping future generations of low-income workers from getting hooked in the first place. As for today’s adults, if the new tax drives them to quit, they will have more to spend on their families, cut their risk of cancer and heart disease and feel better.
What can we learn from the last paragraph? (2009山东C)
A. The new tax will be beneficial in the long run.
B. Low-income Americans are more likely to fall ill.
C. Future generations will be hooked on smoking.
D. Adults will depend more on their families.

【考例2】Nearly all “speed reading” course have a “pacing” element — some timing device which lets the students know how many words a minute he is reading. You can do this simply by looking at your watch 5 or 10 minutes and noting down the page number you have reached. Check the average number of words per page for the particular book you are reading.
A pacing device of a reading course is aimed at enabling the students to ____.
A. assess their reading speed
B. speed up their reading
C. check their comprehension
D. do the most efficient reading

(七)用词常规含义代替文章的具体词义。

在英语语言中,许多词或短语存在多义的现象,考生如果只掌握其常用的基本词义是不够的。在阅读实践中,更不能用已掌握的常用词义去代替偏用词义,从而导致对词或句意的误解或费解。命题者在命制词义句意题时,就通常把要考查的词或句意的常规含义作为干扰项以麻痹考生。因此,考生必须根据上下文推测其在特定语境下的含义。

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